Tree Glossary

From species of trees to special services, there are many terms in the realm of tree care that you might not have heard of. To help make your experience with Trusty Tree Services as simple as possible, our team of Edmonton arborists has put together this glossary of common definitions.

Arboriculture: The cultivation, management, and study of perennial woody plants such as trees, shrubs, and vines. This study focuses on how plants grow and react to their environment and cultural practices. Techniques within the field include planting, fertilization, pruning, shaping, selective removal of branches, and pest and disease control.

Arborist (Arboriculturist): Someone who studies and practices arboriculture. They are the ones that carry out planting, fertilization, selective pruning, and other techniques to help plants stay healthy. Arborists also employ risk management practices, and take legal issues and aesthetics into mind to maintain both pirate and public wooded areas.

American Elm: Though it originates in the US, the American Elm is one of the most commonly found trees throughout Alberta. At full maturity they reach up to 25 meters in height and have a diameter of about 12 meters. This species is fast growing and enjoys full to partial sun and deep, moist soil.

Ash: Ash trees make up 60% of boulevard trees in Edmonton. The species found in Alberta is predominantly Green Ash. Ash trees have several identifying features, including branches that grow directly across from one another and compound leaves. A strong wood, the Green Ash is a hardy, fast growing tree that produces an ample amount of shade.

Ash Anthracnose: A disease that frequently affects the Ash species of trees. Caused by a fungus, Ash Anthracnose looks like water-soaked spots on the edges of young leaves or roots at the base of the tree. Over time, these spots turn black or brown as the disease spreads from the bottom of the tree to the top.

Ash Borer: Also called the Emerald Ash Borer, this insect is found throughout Alberta and puts the Ash species at risk. A day-flying moth with clear wings, the Ash Borer is native to North America. The moth’s larvae tunnel holes through Ash trees, weakening young stems and increasing breakage. This can lead to the death of younger trees and inhibit the growth of more mature ones.

Balsam Fir: A slow growing boreal species, the Balsam Fir is found in central and eastern Canada from Alberta to Newfoundland. They like to grow underneath other species of trees and thrive in moist conditions. The Balsam Fir is tall and narrow and produces a sticky resin at its trunk. This type of wood is often used to create lumber, paper, and other wood-based products. Making up 3% of Alberta’s softwood, Balsam Fir grows 14-20 meters tall.

Bark: The outer layer of a tree. It protects the inner layers from disease, pests, and other external dangers such as fires and extreme temperatures.

Beaked Hazelnut: This tree has many different shoots and limbs. It flowers and produces an edible nut, and is a unique choice for Alberta homeowners in search of a tree for their property, however, they are more often found in forests and enjoy a bit of shade.

Black Knot: Caused by the fungus Apiosporina morbosa, this disease affects select fruiting trees such as cherry, apricot, and almond. It leads to swelling in the twigs and branches, as well as discolouration, girdling, and dieback on the branches and trunks. It looks like a warty, light brown knot on new shoots before turning the entire limb black.

Boreal: Northern regions or a northern biotic area known for its coniferous forests.

Branch Collar: Where a branch departs from a trunk. Branch collars often have thicker or rougher bark. During pruning maintenance, this is where cuts are made to remove the branch. It can also be referred to as a stem or shoulder.

Bracing: Tree bracing involves installing steel rods through certain tree limbs and branches to shift them in a specific direction. This process is carried out to provide support to parts of the tree that need it while influencing them to grow in a different way.

Bucket Trucks: Used for pruning and tree trimming, these trucks feature a bucket-like vessel on the end of a hydraulic arm that extends to help them reach high trees.

Bud: The undeveloped part of a tree or plant. Initially shaped like a teardrop, this is where the new growth of a plant happens. A branch will continue to grow out of the bud at its tip.

Buttress Root: A root that grows out of the ground near the base of a shallowly rooted tree. Also known as Plant Roots, they are often found in nutrient-poor soils.

Cabling: Often grouped together with bracing, cabling uses multiple cables to hold a tree branch or entire tree in place. The cables are incredibly strong and can support a tree in storms and high winds. This process is also used to support weak branches and can help them grow in different directions.

Cambium: The part of a tree trunk that grows. It’s found beneath the bark and the phloem, just above the sapwood. The cambium produces sapwood and phloem, and is responsible for creating concentric rings.

Cankers: Cracked bark patches or lesions that ooze liquid that stains tree bark. They can be caused by bacterial and fungal infections and girdle a tree to weaken it, making it more susceptible to other plant diseases and pests.

Canopy (Crown): The upper part of a tree made up of branches, stems, and leaves or needles. Canopies range in size and shape depending on the type and species of tree. Some canopies are widespread while others are close together.

Climbers: Tree service professionals and arborists that climb trees for pruning, cabling, bracing, or removal. They are specially trained and adhere to certified safety measures.

Concentric Rings: A series of rings that radiate outwards from the centre of a tree trunk. They are used to identify the age of a tree.

Conifer Trees: A common type of tree across North America. Most are evergreen and have needles. They also produce large cones and include Fir, Spruce, Larch, and Pine species.

Crown Cleaning: This term is also called dead-wooding and is a pruning method. It removes dead, diseased, or damaged limbs so that they do not spread disease to the other branches on the tree. This process can also help improve a tree’s structure and make it look a lot cleaner.

Crown Raising: A type of pruning technique that clears away the lowest branches of a tree’s canopy. This is done to create space for cars or people to pass under or to create a better view. This tricky process must ensure the correct balance of the tree's canopy and trunk is maintained or else the tree may suffer.

Crown Reduction: Helping to promote the tree growth of new branches, this tree pruning technique cuts back old branches to the lateral branch that supports them.

Crown Thinning: This tree pruning technique will cut away branches in a tree’s crown to thin it out. It’s done for increased air circulation and to let light through to all branches of the tree. These two things help a tree flourish and lessen the risk of storm damage.

Deciduous Trees: Trees that flower and lose their leaves in the fall. Grown in Alberta or their beautiful features such as flowers, fruit, and colour-changing leaves. They include tree types like Maple, Oak, and Ash.

Deep Root Fertilizing: A type of fertilizer application that helps unhealthy trees grow and thrive. It uses high-pressure equipment to push nutrients and organic elements into the soil around a tree’s roots.

Dieback: When a tree starts to decay from the leaves or roots to its trunk. This condition is caused by diseases, pest infestations, or environmental stressors such as extreme weather.

Dutch Elm Disease: A deadly disease that affects all Elm Tree species in Alberta. Caused by a fungus, it clogs the tree’s water conducting system and kills the tree. This disease is spread by 3 different species of beetles which seek out weak trees to breed. Once adults, the beetles fly to other trees and spread the fungus.

Dwarf Alberta Spruce: An evergreen conifer that grows about 13 feet tall. With a pyramid-like shape, it’s a relative of the spruce family with trees that exceed 100 feet. The Dwarf Alberta Spruce is commonly used for foundation plantings across North America. It grows slowly and has aromatic needles.

Girdling: A technique that kills trees by cutting through their bark in a strip around the stem down to the wood. By severing the vascular cambium, it restricts nutrient flow from the roots to the foliage. 

Grounds Maintenance: From mowing to spraying for weeds and removing debris, grounds maintenance is a broad service that cleans up your yard or keeps it looking aesthetically pleasing in the winter, spring, summer, and fall.

Hazard Avoidance: A technique performed by an arborist to assess trees for potential risks and hazards. Aspects such as failure potential, environmental risks, and decay may be identified to help prevent injury or property damage.

Heartwood: The centre layer of a tree. It is the oldest layer of bark it has and is also the strongest.

Infill Removals: The process of developing under-used or vacant land in already developed urban areas. It can involve demolishing a building and replacing it with something else, or developing commercial, residential, or institutional vacant lots.

Jack Pine: A common species of tree found throughout Alberta. With short, sharp needles that grow in pairs, they have curved cones that open after forest fires. This species is often used in paper, pulp, and lumber production.

Lot Clearing: The process of clearing properties of underbrush and trees to keep them looking tidy, organized, or accessible.

Phloem: The layer of cells that sits between the cambium and bark. It carries sugars from the leaves to the rest of the tree. Produced by cambium, as it dies, it will become part of the outer bark of a tree.

Root Ball: The accumulation of roots at the bottom of a tree or plant. During relocation, this part will be replanted into the soil.

Root Pruning: Cutting roots to prevent damage to a tree from excavation or construction located near to the plant. Root pruning is also done to prepare a large tree for transplant.

Sapwood: The inner layer of bark on the tree. Sapwood lies beneath the cambium and transports nutrients and water from the roots to the leaves. Sapwood eventually dries out when new layers of it are created, becoming hardwood.

Shoots: New, leafy stems found above ground on the soil or a plant.

Stump Grinding: A service offered by Trusty Tree Services, our grinders can take on stumps with a depth of 8” to 30”. Used to remove large and small stumps from your backyard, this turf-friendly machine won't damage your grass and doesn’t leave behind any mess.

Stump Removal: The process of removing a stump from the ground with heavy machinery. It involves deep digging so that the entire root system is uprooted from the ground. It’s a long process that can do damage to your yard, and requires ample space for excavators or backhoes.

Topping: Trimming the entire canopy or crown of a tree. This process will cut away all of the tree’s upper layers and is often done as an emergency solution as it puts the tree at serious risk. Topping is usually reserved for trees that have become a health and safety hazard.

Tree Trimming/Pruning: Tree trimming and pruning are similar processes concerned with maintaining the health and safety of trees via the removal of plant parts. It is used to improve a tree’s structure, clear roadways, improve views, or increase flower and fruit production and involves the removal of dead, diseased, or damaged branches. Trimming can also involve thinning, reduction, and raising techniques.

Tree Removal: The technique of safely removing trees from the ground. While not recommended in every case, sometimes this process is necessary for the safety of your home or the convenience of a roadway.

Tree and Shrub Planting: This process improves the aesthetics of your yard by planting young trees and shrubs in a viable location. Correct planting techniques are essential to the health and survival of trees, and arborists will ensure all rules are followed so that each one will thrive.

Verticillium Wilt: Caused by a soil-borne fungus, this vascular disease enters tree roots through damaged spots and causes leaf wilt and dieback. It’s a fast working disease that can kill off a tree in a few months.

Water Sprout: Tiny shoots that pop up on the trunks and branches of trees due to stress, improper pruning, and weather. These nutrient-sappers should be cut back quickly to prevent the tree from taking on damage due to poor health.

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Preethy Thomas
Preethy Thomas

Left us a 5 star review

Preethy Thomas
October 8, 2023

What a fantastic crew!!! Sarah & Shane came and trimmed my rather large tree. Such a professional, knowledgeable, caring, capable and courteous crew. Very well done from beginning to end.They did a fabulous job!

Greg Demuynck
October 4, 2023
Brenda Moore
September 25, 2023

Trusty Trees did their magic at my Mothers house in Fort Saskatchewan. Mikex2 we’re on time, organized and knew their business. Gave the trees a good haircut as they had a lot of dead areas. Very pleased with their service, would definitely recommend them! Much thanks Mike and Mike.

Dwayne Thiessen
September 10, 2023

We had a crew from Trusty tree services to come and remove 6, 40 foot aspen trees. They did an awesome job. They were very knowledgeable and very considerate of our property and our neighbours property. They had our yard and neighbours yards totally cleaned up when they were finished. I would highly recommend Trusty Tree Services

Ron Tkachuk
August 22, 2023

We had a crew from Trusty Tree Services trim three trees on our property a few weeks ago, sorry for the late review. Couldn't be happier with the whole process. From the estimate to the final clean up, everything went very well. I contacted other companies for estimates, didn't even get a call back. Thanks again Trusty Tree for a great job!

Matt H
August 4, 2023

Trusty Tree Services came out and pruned our Amur Cherry tree in Fort Saskatchewan and did a great job. The technicians were knowledgeable and gave me tips on how to better take care of our tree. The technicians were friendly and polite and cleaned up before they left. I would definitely recommend Trusty Tree Service!

Sarah Wilson
July 25, 2023

Excellent job! I highly recommend this company. I will be calling again this fall! I am very happy.

Cindy Grier
July 7, 2023

We had an amazing experience with Trusty Tree. They gave a prompt estimate for some very difficult trees in our campground. They arrived on time and began work immediately. Their expertise shone through as they brought down the trees on point! Friendly, informative, professional and outstanding workmanship. I would recommend them in a heartbeat. Shout out to Colton, Joe and Adrian - great work!

Deanna Craig
July 5, 2023

We had Trusty Tree out this year to shape and thin 4 trees and 3 Mugo Pine shrubs. I was impressed with a quick appt for the quote and then quick response for booking. Our trees were pruned earlier in the season as this was the recommended timeframe, and the Mugo Pine shrubs pruned later in the spring after the new growth appeared. I'm pleased with the crew that came out, they were polite, professional and experienced. We are happy with how our trees and shrubs look and feel the price was fair. We would definitely recommend Trusty Tree and will have them back in the future. Thanks for taking extra time with us to talk about proper pruning too!

Mark stime
June 26, 2023

Very professional and courteous crew. Difficult tree to cut down with bucket truck given clearances.

christine Maclean
June 22, 2023

I am a new widow and my yard work is so overwhelming, I called Trusty tree to come over and give me a quote. Because my husband who has slways been in love with taking great care of our home,has passed I am here to do it alone.Trusty tree are the most professional people I dealt with..And they actually had the most professional quote,they took pictures of my Tree to elaborate on what needed to be done,and explained why everything had to be done in a certain way...after 3 other companies coming out I realized that Trusty Trees quote was extremely fair. So when the Trusty Tree crew arrived to prune my beloved tree, they were ready, and really understood the sentimental value of my tree that my late husband and I used to sit under every night. The crew members Joe and Shane collaborated beautifully brought down the required amount of my tree..They had a fantastic chipper on site and they also cleaned up the yard so beautifully after the cutting was done...If anyone reads this review,please understand how much that tree meant to me and my late husband. Joe and Shane gave it a loving and caring trim, and they where not only hard working but very informative of the process,and very just great guys,they included their sense of humor to make the trimming process easier on me. THEY were so compasionate and understanding . I thank them for that..... If you are thinking of pruning your gorgeous beloved tree, Trusty Tree has got be your only choice. THESE GUYS ARE THE BEST!!! My name is Christine and if anyone wants to contact me about what a great job this crew did..please do!!!

Sarah Whyte
June 22, 2023

Trusty Tree is a great place to work. Management is caring and hardworking. Equipment is of high quality and maintained professionally. Smooth operation and always great communication between management and team members.Looking for a place to work? This is the place.

Carla Hanak
May 26, 2023

I highly recommend Trusty Tree Services! From start to finish everything was handled promptly, professionally and courteously! They are very knowledgeable and efficient. I really liked how they explained things. We will definitely have them back for some fall work. Thanks to everyone!

Darryl Edinga
May 23, 2023
Karli Butler
May 19, 2023

We were sad to see our tree go, but it wasn’t well and bigger and bigger branches were breaking off; however our Trusty Tree Arborists did a great job. Thanks to @Sarah and @Michael and thanks for the excellent service Trusty Tree.

gary hnatko
May 17, 2023

Excellent, prompt, efficient and professional service. Team was very pleasant to work with. In and out in no time. Clean worksite. Would definitely recommend.

Linda Lankoff
May 11, 2023

The services provided were both reasonably priced and work done was excellent!

Marylyn Reed
May 5, 2023

Very fast professional and thorough work done on both my experiences with Trusty tree Service. Good cleanups and answered all questions. They made valid suggestions which I appreciated. Thank you.

Stephen Davidson
May 4, 2023

Excellent experience. Very knowledgeable experienced crew. Safety is a priority .Highly recommend . Great Job!

Darci White
May 3, 2023

Very speedy and clean-up was amazing. Thanks guys

Gordon Sandberg
April 28, 2023

Thanks to Mike and the crew for doing a great job on Grenfell Ave St Albert. Very professional service.

Colleen Butler
April 27, 2023

Fantastic! The team did an excellent job pruning and shaping our trees. Thank you

Paul Whattam
April 27, 2023

This was the second time I've used this company for mature tree removal. This time 4 fully grown columnar Aspen trees located close to fencing, a deck and between 2 houses were successfully removed with no damage to the aforementioned structures but also nearby concrete curbing. Work was done as scheduled, quickly and neatly. Very satisfied with the work.

Rob Butler
April 25, 2023

Great service by the guys at Trusty Tree Services. Very professional and knowledgeable. They really knew their stuff about how to properly prune each type of tree in our yard. Our trees look so much better now and will have the opportunity to thrive. Good care for our garden ornaments and great cleanup afterwards.Thank-you

Darvin Mills
April 24, 2023

Mike And Shay trimmed 11 trees in and around our complex this morning and did an amazing job. They were professional and punctual. Arrived on time, very efficient and ensured that all branches were clean up before leaving. Very pleasant to work with and we look forward to working with Trusty Tree Service over the summer and fall.

Lionel Grobel
April 22, 2023
Judith Hum
April 20, 2023

The gentlemen took down a long dead tree YAY !!!! Professional, honest and did a super job THX !!!!

Shelley Honey
April 18, 2023

Thank you Sarah for all of your help!

Sherry Honey
April 17, 2023

Sarah was very knowledgeable and walked us through the options of our tree removal. The team was friendly and overall a great experience. Would highly recommend Trusty Tree Services.

Paul Cairns
April 13, 2023

I look for three things when it comes to service: 1) friendly attitude, 2) timeliness, and 3) efficiency. The crew were excellent in all three scores. It was great to see a clean truck, maintained gear, and use of personal protective equipment as well. This is a great choice for tree care. Done in less than an hour!!!

Dean Mason
April 12, 2023

Mike’s crew did an amazing job for us - pruned trees & removed every visible black knot fungus. They picked up every twig & left our yard tidy. Very personal & professional crew - would strongly recommend their services ! 👍

Bea & Randall Huisman
April 12, 2023

Sarah and crew were here this morning and did one terrific job of trimming all of our trees. I highly recommend them to everyone needing any tree services done.

April 11, 2023

Sarah and Danny did a great job removing a large tree from the front of my yard. I was impressed with the time efficiency and clean up. I would recommend.

Christina Colenutt
January 19, 2023

When Trevor came to quote my yard at my new house, he helped me identify all the trees and shrubs, and clearly explained what work needed to be done. When the day came to do the work, Kolton and Carl were friendly and also walked me through what they were doing and why (I'm interested in these things and was asking questions). They did their best to save my cherry that is infected with black knot. Looking forward to having them come back to continue tree maintenance in the future.

Jenn C
September 26, 2022
David St. Jean
April 6, 2022
Ed Clarke
January 25, 2022
Lisan Maclean
September 15, 2021

We had trusty trees! Cut down our tree and put all new grass down in our back yard and it's absolutely beautiful 😊 Also the crew are very friendly and extremely hard workers! Thank again ❣️

Matthew Hudon (Matt SH)
July 6, 2021

Excellent value for the work they provide. Our crew was very professional and cleaned up the area they chipped in, right down to the pavement.

Trevor Small
June 13, 2021

Trusty Tree is great. Had them remove two trees with cleanup and shredding. looks great and would use again!

Jessy Yau
June 8, 2021

We had a tree in our yard that had died a few years earlier and wasn’t sure who to call. We called Sunstar who recommended Trusty Tree to us. Trevor came out to look at our tree. We didn’t realize we had another Tree that was diseased. He sent us a quote very quickly. He was able to book a time for tree removal, stump grinding, as well as planting our new trees. The project was done in the timeline provided. The crews showed up on time or earlier than expected which was amazing! They were very professional. I would hire Trusty Tree again!

Renee Pelech
June 7, 2021
keith b
June 5, 2021

Professional, courteous and reasonable pricing. Keep it local folks!

Rick McBryer
June 4, 2021

Excellent service. Good response time and automatic communication / payment system. Work was done effectively and efficiently.

Jay Lewis
June 4, 2021

Fantastic experience, staff was friendly and prompt. Left our acreage clean and tidy. Defiantly recommend Trusty Tree.

Graham Wyllie
June 3, 2021

They were on time did a great job & would recommend them any time.

David Provost
June 3, 2021
Sales Tech Patrol
June 2, 2021

Great service, Always happy to please. The team is great excellent at cleaning up and making everything look great. Highly recommend Trusty Tree.

Roger Crispin
June 2, 2021

Well done. Good service.

Lisa Johnston
June 2, 2021

Trusty tree has been doing work for a condo association for the last few years. They are always reliable, and thorough and easy to deal with.